Updated: Aug 9
Eccentric overload training has become an increasingly popular form of resistance exercise due to its potential for increasing strength and muscle mass.
Recent studies have found that individuals engaging in this type of training can increase their peak force production by up to 50%, with increases in muscular size being seen after as little as 12 weeks.
This article will explore the scientific basis behind eccentric overload training, focusing on the physiology of eccentric contractions and the adaptations that occur with such a program.
The Physiology of Eccentric Contractions
Eccentric contractions are characterized by the lengthening of muscle fibers during muscular contraction, resulting in a greater degree of tension than that experienced during concentric contractions. When stimulated to capacity, eccentric contractions have been found to be associated with greater levels of muscle tension, which can lead to increased fatigue resistance and eccentric strength. This type of training has been utilized for decades as a means to increase strength and size gains.
Research has suggested that eccentric contractions generate higher force production than concentric contractions, leading to an increase in muscle growth and strength. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that this eccentric overload training can help improve one's ability to resist fatigue while performing activities such as running and lifting weights. Furthermore, studies have shown that eccentric overload training may also reduce the risk of injury by improving joint stability and flexibility.
The effects of eccentric overload training can vary depending on individual fitness levels, age, gender, activity level and other factors. For instance, younger individuals tend to respond better than older individuals due to their higher capacity for repair following exercise-induced damage. In addition, eccentric overload exercises preferentially recruit type IIx muscle fibers, which are considered “fast twitch”.
Beyond it’s effectiveness at increasing muscle mass and strength gains when properly utilized within an overall program design strategy, eccentric overload training is also beneficial for improving neuromuscular coordination through enhanced motor control abilities which help reduce risk of injury while promoting skill development across various sports or physical activities.
Adaptations to Eccentric Overload Training
Research has indicated that adaptations resulting from eccentric overload exercise can be greater than those of traditional forms of resistance training. There are four major pathways that eccentric overload training creates unique benefits:
1- Mechanical - The greater force production results in micro trauma to the muscle which in turn is stronger through the recovery and repair process
2- Histological/ Hormonal- elicits the production of growth hormone and testosterone. In addition it can improve insulin sensitivity.
3- Neurological- Eccentric loading has been shown to elicit unique neurological pathways and can increase intramuscular coordination
4- Metabolic- Increased metabolic expenditure for up to 72 hrs, as well as increased mitochondrial function
Eccentric overload exercises involve the muscle being subjected to a greater load than during traditional forms of training. During these exercises, the muscle is forced to produce more force than normal and adapts by increasing its capacity for power output, as well as increasing the nervous system’s ability to recruit a greater number of muscle fibers.
Additionally, this type of exercise has been found to induce an increased rate of muscle hypertrophy compared with conventional resistance training. One of the avenues that eccentric overload training creates these benefits is through higher degrees of mechanical tension than possible on the concentric phase of movement. This promotes not only an increase in muscular strength but also triggers significant adaptive responses such as increases in protein synthesis and neural drive, which further contribute towards enhanced performance gains from this form of exercise.
Moreover, this type of training has been observed to improve coordination and balance due to high levels of muscular activity being achieved throughout all phases of movement when performing eccentric exercises. A recent systematic review demonstrated that there is evidence supporting beneficial effects from eccentric overload interventions on strength development and functional performance outcomes in both healthy individuals and athletes alike.
The authors concluded that this form of exercise should be considered an efficient approach for improving strength-related capabilities in various populations due to the demonstrated improvements seen after undertaking such protocols. Eccentric overload training protocols have been observed to provide meaningful enhancements across a range of fitness parameters not seen through conventional methods alone, leading some experts in the field to recommend combining different strategies (eccentric plus conventional) when designing effective programs aimed at promoting optimal adaptation outcomes for athletes or general population members seeking improved physical performance levels.
Eccentric overload training has emerged as an effective means of improving muscular strength and power with a host of additional benefits.
While the physiological mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain incompletely understood, recent research has shown that eccentric contractions are associated with greater force production than their concentric counterparts.
Long-term adaptations to this type of training are also likely to depend on its intensity and duration.
By manipulating these variables in a systematic manner, it is possible to create a program tailored for the individual's goals and physical abilities.
Through careful monitoring and adjustment of such programs, athletes can reap significant performance benefits from eccentric overload training.